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Quantification of Nayikas

Posted On: Wednesday, September 6th, 2017
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Author: Dr Dwaritha Vishwanath, Bengaluru

Abstract: Nayikas or women characters have various classifications. In Sanskrit poetics, it is often found that the total number of nayikas, based on various combinations of the classifications, is said to be 384. This research article titled ‘Quantification of Nayikas’ aims at throwing light on this magic number 384. How did the scholars arrive at this number? Is it justified? If not, what would be the number, are a few questions which have been dealt with. Understanding theory and the application of the same is very vital for presentation, thus a deeper study on this is warranted.

Purpose of the study: No Sanskrit scholar has ever gone about exemplifying these 384 nayikas. Even Bhoja who explains and exemplifies all other combinations of nayikas in his Shringaraprakasha overlooks the Dhira and ashtanayika combination. Rasamanjari which is deals with nayikas exhaustively and is considered as a major contributor to the field, exemplifies the Ashtanayika and 5 varieties of it – that is mugdha, madhya, prgalbha, parakiya and samanya varieties; but overlooks the Dhira and ashtanayika combination.  Further details have been discussed in detail inside the paper.

Over the centuries all the scholars who have written about the nayikas have overlooked the Dhira, Adhira and the Dhiradhira nayikas. Shringaramanjari is the first work which recognizes the issue of a Dhira, Adhira and the Dhiradhira nayikas as being a part of the ashtavidhanayikas. Rakeshgupta in his work the ‘Sixteen heroines’, acknowledges this issue. No literature is found on this issue, apart from this. Even today writers on nayikas have failed to address this issue.

Dancers and writers of literature for dance must have a clear knowledge of the nayikas and their varieties. Quantifying the same will help in better understanding of the concept. This could possibly lead to scholars exemplifying the nayikas, thus giving more literature for the use of dancers.

Scope of the study: The concepts of Indian poetics are broadly common among languages. But every language adds its unique flavor to the concepts. Love and human emotions being a universal topic has also been widely dealt with by scholars of all languages. Keeping these factors in mind, it is well understood that there is no end to this study.

Limitation of the study: This study deals only with the Sanskrit tradition of the nayikas. Since this study basically deals with the quantification of the nayikas, detailed description of the nayikas and their varieties have not been dealt with. Details have been presented where it is necessary for the treatment of the subject.

Methodology: Sanskrit texts have been analyzed to understand the various factorial classifications contributing to the ultimate number 384.   The foot notes are per the MLA style sheet. The capital roman characters are indicative of the chapter number, the small roman are indicative of the verse number and the Arabic numeral denotes the page number- this has been followed in the foot notes wherever applicable.

Introduction:

Nayaka- Nayika bhedas have been a topic of fascination for scholars over ages. The complex human emotions and the enigma of actions and reactions have made every writer on poetics to add his name in the list of contributors.

There are a few restrictions to the conventional nayaka- nayika bhedas. The classifications are meant for the most common relation of a young eligible man with a youthful lady. Love towards an old person (man/woman), or a child is not considered in this spectrum of divisions. Love between two men or two women are also not accepted here. One sided love is also not applicable. Women characters or Nayikas, by convention are young and attractive women who are can be the object of love for a handsome youth.

Women characters have been divided into many divisions by scholars through the ages. The basis of the divisions and the names or forms of the division is varied.

  1. Division based on birth:

This is not a very popular division. Natyashastra and Rasamanjari are the only two works which give this division. A nayika by birth could be a divya (divine), Kulaja (born to a Brahmin or merchant), Kshatriya (born as an aristocrat) or a Veshya (a courtesan) says Natyashastra.

Divya ca nripapatni ca kulastri ganika tatha |

Etastu nayika jneya nanaprakritilakshanah ||[1]

Basing the division on birth Rasamanjari presents Divya (divine), Adivya (mortals) and divyadivya (semi –divine). [2]

Natyadarpana[3] gives the division of kulaja, divya, kshatriya and panyakamini. The divisions of mugdha, madhya and pragalbha are brought under this classification.

  1. Division based on age

The youth of the nayika is perceived to be of four stages – prathamam, dvitiyam, tritiyam and caturtham yauvanam

sarvasam narinam yauvanabhedah smritastu catvarah ||

nepathyarupaceshtagunaistu shringaramasadya ||[4]

Over the ages, this division underwent metamorphosis and became the mugdha, madhya and pragalbha classification by adding a few more quotients. The 4th stage of yauvana, Bharatha says, is the end of youth and an enemy of shringara[5](Shringarashatrubhutam yauvanametat caturtham tu).  Thus only the first three stages of youth have been taken into consideration as mugdha, madhya and pragalbha, for the final computation

 

  1. Division based on their nature

The nayikas are further divided into uttama, madhyama and adhama based on their nature and behavioral pattern. This division is usually considered for the final computation. The definition of uttama and the like are quite wide. Though it is the nature of the heroine, the most commonly accepted definition is in relation with the erring hero.

  1. Division based on belonging/ marital status

The most common division is that of sviya, Parakiya and the like based on the factor as to whom the nayika belongs to. It is imperative to understand these divisions in detail to unravel the final count of the nayikas. The most popular types in this division are sviya, parakiya and samanya suggested by kavyalankara[6], Shringaratilaka[7], dasharupaka, kavyanushasanam of both hemachandra[8] and vagbhatta[9], bhavaprakasha[10], rasamanjari, rasarnavasudhakara[11] and sahityadarpana[12].

vagbhattalankara and alankarashekara  mention svakiya, panangana, anudha and parakiya[13]. Here the parakiya is indicative of parōdha. Rakeshagupta in his ‘Studies in nayakanayika bheda’ supports this division stating –

“From the point of view of social relationship, which forms the clear basis of this classification, there is a world of difference in the positions of the two types. Psychologically as well, there is hardly anything in common in the mental set up of the udha and anudha: while the former having a constant feeling of social guilt is always afraid lest her secret love should be known to others, the latter conceals her love mostly out of modesty; while the former can never be sure of a permanent union with her paramour, the latter sustains a reasonable hope of such union, and while the former has to suffer an all around social persecution of a very severe type in the case the secret of her illicit love is out, in similar circumstances, may be happily given away in marriage to the man of her choice. An Anudha, as a matter of fact, is either a svakiya or a parakiya in the making”[14]

Agnipurana adds in another variety punarbhu (a remarried widow) to the already existing – sviya, parakiya and samanya varieties. A widow once remarried will become a sviya in all rights. So, the punarbhu division is futile.

Thus finally it can be concluded that according to division based on belonging or marital status, nayikas are divided into 4 – sviya, anudha, parōdha and samanya.

  1. Division based on situation (avastha) – the eight nayikas

Svadhinapatika vasakasajja virahotkanthita khandita kalahantarita vipralabdha proshitapriya abhisariketyashtau svastriprabhritinamavasthah |[15]

This is the most commonly found division of the nayikas. Though through the ages, the definitions of some have changed and a few more points have been added or subtracted, majorly it has remained quite similar to the original idea.

  1. Other Divisions:

Vakroktigarvita, Manavati, Anyasambhogaduhkhita, Pravatsyatpatika are a few other divisions of nayikas found in works. These nayikas are also situation based. Since it is not possible to have two classifications based on situations, it must be brought under the umbrella of the ashtanayika, either as an addition or as a sub variety to the already existing nayikas.

6.1 Vakroktigarvita is a division mentioned by Bhanudatta in Rasamanjari. It is placed as a general division of women before he moves on to classify them according to the conventional eight states. This Vakroktigarvita is a nayika who exhibits her pride through crooked speech. She is said to be of two types Premagarvita and Soundaryagarvita (also known as Rupagarvita). Premagarvita is a variety of Svadhinapatika. The one who is proud of her nayaka’s love is Premagarvita. The next variety is Rupagarvita. If a Rupagarvita has an Anukula Nayaka then she is a Svadhinapatika. She has to be a Svadhinapatika, Vasakasajjika or an Abhisarika since the nayikas in viraha  are not bothered by looks, she cannot be any of them.

6.2 Manavati Mana is the silence born out of anger caused by the mistake committed by the lover. The lady who has Mana is a Manavati. This Mana of a Manavati is of 3 types: They are Laghu, Madhyama and Guru.[16]  Easily appeased is Laghu, difficult to appease is Madhyama and most difficult to appease is Guru.The one who is not appeasable is a Rasabhasa or semblance of Rasa. Laghu is born when the hero sees the rival woman.  When the lover calls by a wrong name Madhyama is born. When the lover is united with another lady Guru is born. Appeased by simple distractions is Laghu Mana. Appeased by promises and so on is Madhyama Mana. Appeased only when he falls at her feet is Guru Mana.[17]

Shringaramanjari states that all angry nayikas are Khanditas.

6.3 Anyasambhogaduhkhita This nayika has been proposed by Rasamanjari as a general classification along with Vakroktigarvita and manavati. The one who displays anger not in front of the hero is Anyasambhogaduhkhita[18]. Shringaramanjari brings Anyasambhogaduhkhita as the last variety of Khandita with a sub variety called Irshyagarvita.

6.4 Proshyatpatika Shringaramanjari has a long discussion regarding the ninth variety Proshyatpatika created by Bhanudatta. Akbar Shah feels that approving of Proshyatpatika, will lead to more varieties popping up like the vigalitaprastanapatika (the nayika whose hero adjourns his journey after seeing her sorrow), avasitapravasapatika (the nayika whose lord has come after a long journey), pravatsyatpatika (similar to Bhanudatta’s Proshyatpatika), Pravasatpatika (the nayika whose lover is leaving right now) and so on. So he feels it is better to bring these avasthas under the bracket of the ashtanayikas.

  1. Division based on maturity:
    • Sviya

sviya is first found in Rudrata’s Kavyalankara. Sviya is that nayika whose character is pure, well behaved with people and is endowed with the qualities of compassion, simplicity and forgiveness. This Sviya is further divided into Mugdha, Madhya and Pragalbha.

Shucipauracararata caritrasharanarjavakshamayukta |

Atmiya tu tredha mugdha madhya pragalbha ca ||[19]

  • Mugdha

navinayauvana nari navamanmathavikriya |

vakra suratalilayam mugdha kimcid rusha yata ||[20]

The lady whose youth is new, in whom love has just sprung, who is impassive to love sports and who is gentle in anger is called a Mugdha.

Sahityadarpana defines Mugdha as follows:

prathamavatirnayauvanamadanavikara ratau vama |

kathita mridushca mane samadhikalajjavati mugdha ||[21]

Mugdha is one in whom youth has just sprouted and love is just springing to life. She is not very interested in love sport, is soft in her anger and is very bashful.

She is young and tender. She belongs to the Prathama youvana type as per Bharata’s Natyashastra.

pinorugandajaghanadharastanam karkasham ratimanojnam ||

shringarasamutsaham prathamam tadyauvanam jneyam |[22]

Rasamanjari of Bhanudatta gives two different types of division. According to one– Jnyatayouvanam and Ajnyatayouvanam– The one who is aware of her youth and the other, who is not. Each of these are further classified into– Navodha and Vishrabdhanavodha. The Navodha who appears full of bashfulness and fear, before her husband, converts slowly into a Vishrabdhanavodha. [23]

Thus mugdha is considered 4 for the computation.

  • Madhya

The next division is the Madhya. She is partially in love and partially shy. She is more experienced than a Mugdha.

Samanalajjamadana prodyuttarunyashalini |

Madhya kamayate kantam mohantasuratakshama ||[24]

 

She is equal to Bharata’s Dvitiyayauvana.

gatram purnavayavam pinau ca payodharau natam madhyam ||

kamasya sarabhutam yauvanametad dvitiyam tu |[25]

This Madhya is divided into Dhira, Adhira and Dhiradhira.

Sa dhira vaktivakroktya priyam kopatkritagasam

Madhya vadatyupalambhairadhira parusham tatha ||[26]

Dhira is the one who shows her anger through sarcastic speech, Adhira uses harsh words and dhiradhira uses indirect speech towards the erring hero.

Though this division is commonly accepted, it must be noted that this division is based on situation and not on her age or maturity. As, Dhira and others are angry heroines, how can they be placed in situations like a Svadhinapatika or for that matter even in Virahōtkhantitha? The Ashtavidhanayikas are nayikas based on the situation. Thus, the Dhira and others should also be placed in the Ashtavidhanayikas. Sringaramanjari suggests placing these under Khandita.

Shringaramanjari states that all angry nayikas are Khanditas. “kopajanyanayikabhedah sarvah khandita eva nayikah. Kopotpattisamaye khandita saiva manam kurvati cenmanavati, saiva vakroktyadi vakti ceddhiradi….”[27] When the anger is dominant the heroine is a Khandita, when she is simmering silently, then she is Manavati; when she speaks sarcastically and so on, then she is Dhira, Adhira and Dhiradhira, when she speaks to her friends in absence of the nayaka then she herself becomes Anyasambhogaduhkhita. At this juncture, Shringaramanjari says that even a Kalahantarita is a Khandita when her anger is in the forefront. It is the change of mood that comes after the quarrel which determines her as a Kalahantarita.

Thus it can be concluded that dhira, adhira and dhiradhira are not part of madhya and are to be considered as a part of khandita.

Each of these nayikas are further classified in Jyeshtha and Kanishtha.

tribhedasamyata madhya pratyekam dvividha punah |

jyeshtha ceti kanishtha ca shadvidhabhut satam mate ||[28]

Thus according to the traditional scheme, Madhya was six kinds – the jyeshtha and kanishtha multiplied with Dhira and others. Now that the dhira and other divisions have been incorporated in the Ashtavidhanayika classification, only two kinds of Madhya – the jyeshtha and kanishtha are to be considered for the final calculations of the heroines.

Some experts in the field of alankara shastra consider a jyeshtha to be the one married earlier while others feel she is the one who is favored by the hero. The most popularly accepted definition is the latter.

Tatra parinitatve sati bharturadhikasneha jyeshtha. Tatha sati bharturnyunasneha kanishtha. [29]

  • Pragalbha – The last division of heroines according to her age is Pragalbha. She is mature and bold in love.

labdhayatih pragalbha ratikarmani pandita vibhurdaksha |

akrantanayakamana nirvyudhavilasavistara ||

surate nirakulasau dravatamiva yati nayakasyange |

na ca tatra vivektumalam kōyam kaham kimetaditi ||[30]

She is equal to Bharata’s Tritiyayouvana.

sarvashrisamyuktam ratikaranotpadanam ratikaradhyam |

kamapyayitashōbham yauvanametat tritiyam tu ||[31]

She is mature in love and is filled with love. She is not shy and does not mind taking the first step towards dalliance. A Pragalbha again is divided into Dhira, Adhira and Dhiradhira. This again as established earlier; is a division based on situation and this does not warrant further explanations here. This Pragalbha like the Madhya is further divided into Jyeshtha and kanishtha, thus making the number of Pragalbhas as two.

7.1.4 Sviya as considered for the calculation of total number of nayikas

The Mugdha is four, while Madhya and Pragalbha are two each, thus eight altogether.

7.2  Classification of a parakiya:

A unique classification of Parodha is given in Rasamanjari: 

Gupta lakshita vidagdha kulata anushayana mudita prabhritinam parakiyayanevantarbhavah.

Though having given these names and details, Bhanudatta himself does not include these in the final computation of the nayikas.[32]

These divisions cannot be considered as, the division is not based on a common factor. Most of them are situation based while only a vidagdha is an inborn trait of a nayika. A Gupta conceals evidence (based on situation), a vidagdha is clever (inborn trait), lakshita’s love has been disclosed (situation), kulata is helpless (situation) anushayana is sad because of the tryst being destroyed (situational) mudita is happy as her success in love (situational)[33]. Since, there already exits a division based on situations (the ashtanayikas), it is not possible to have another division based on situations. This probably is the reason for Bhanudatta not considering this division in the final computation.

For example: A mudita is a happy nayika who has been successful in love. How can she be a khandita nayika. These two are totally opposite to each other. Similarly, a anushayana is sad because her tryst is being destroyed. How can she be a vasakasajja or a svadhinapatika?

The other point to be answered here is, could these nayikas be added in the 8 states? That will also not be possible as they are not feasible for a sviya or a samanya. A sviya cannot be a lakshita. Since, she is rightfully married; she will not be worried about her love being disclosed.

Thus, it can be concluded that, this nayika division cannot be considered for the final computation.

7.2.1Total number of Parakiya  Nayikas– Though it was just seen that there are so many more divisions in a Parakiya, these are not widely accepted, thus boiling down to the divisions being just two- Kanya and Parodha. These can be taken as 2 different nayikas as explained earlier or can be thought of as 2 varieties of the same nayika, as per convention. Either ways it is 2.

7.3 Samanya – The Courtesan.

sarvangana tu veshya samyagasau lipsate dhanam kamat |

nirgunaguninostasya na dveshyo na priyah kashcit ||

She who sells love for money is a Samanya, public woman. She likes money only. She is neither impressed by a man of qualities nor does she hate anybody. [34]

  1. Total number of nayikas

8.1 Shringara nayikas

The nayikas are traditionally believed to be 384 in number. These nayikas are actually the shringara nayikas. Often, nayakas and nayikas are dealt as Alambana vibhavas of Shringara rasa[35]. That is probably why the nayikas were considered only as 384.

Tryodashavidha sviya dvividhanyangana mata |

Eka vesya punashcashtavavasthabhedatōpitah ||[36]

Sviya was calculated as 13. The mugdha was always considered as one. Madhya was considered six (dhira, adhira and dhiradhira each in jyeshtha and kanishtha situations). It was the same for the pragalbha too. Thus Sviya was 1+6+6 = 13 total. Parakiya was of two types (kanya and parodha) and the samanya was of one variety only. Thus the basic divisions of nayika types were (13+2+1= 16) sixteen in total. Each of these nayikas was supposed to fit into the ashtaavasthah, thus making 16 x 8 = 128.

 

Iti sashtavimshatishatamuttamamadhyadhamasvarupena |

caturadhikashitiyutam shatatrayam nayikabhedah ||[37]

Each of these nayikas were further classified into uttama, madhyama and adhama thus making the total number of nayikas into 128 x 3 = 384.

This number has been given by bhavaprakasha, rasarnavasudhakara, shringarasarini[38], sahityadarpana, and rasamanjari.

8.2 Findings:

Now, since the dhira and others have been removed from the equation, the total number of nayika varieties will be thus-

Sviya8, Parakiya  – 2, Samanya1, Total – 11

8 Nayikas each of them in the 8 Avasthas = 88

Each of these as Uttama, Madhyama and Adhama = 88 x 3= 264.

 

8.3 Nayikas in general

Bharata in his natyashastra does not deal with the nayaka nayika bhedas in the rasa chapter. The Shringara nayikas when multiplied with the divya, adivya and divyadivya division will be 264*3 = 792.

 

  1. Discussions

9.1 Application of Ashta avasthas for all nayikas : A common question often brought about is that, are the ashta avasthas applicable to all nayikas?

  1. Is a samanya eligible to undergo the 8 avasthas?
  2. Will a sviya go in search of her lord like an abhisarika?
  3. In works like the avaloka of Dhanika on Dasharupakam[39], it is stated that a Parakiya can only be a Virahotkanthita, Abhisarika or a Vipralabdha. She cannot under go any other state as she her lover is not her husband. How to justify?

These questions often have answers in the shastras itself.

Samanya : Prahasanavarjite prakaranadau raktaivaisha vidheya | yatha mricchakatikayam vasantasena carudattasya | [40]

A Samanya can be portrayed as a person in love in prahasana and prakarana types of drama, as prahasana is basically comical by nature- says Dhanika

Thus depending on the circumstances, a samanya can be portrayed as a person in love. When in love all the 8 avasthas are applicable.

Sviya: The debate that a Sviya will not go to the tryst is futile. If the hero is a Dakshina and he sends a message to the sviya heroine to meet him at some place, would not the heroine go, even if it is not her turn? When verses depict them as unable to spend time together inspite of their yearning; due to the elders, children or household duties; situations where the hero sends for her to come to a secluded spot to spend some time away from the household could well be imagined. Infact, Shringaratilaka defines how a sviya abhisarika should go – The Kulaja or Sviya nayika when she becomes an Abhisarika, covers herself fully and goes to him filled with fear and bashfulness.

kulaja samvrita trasta savrida tadgriham vrajet  |[41]

 

Parakiya : The best example of a parakiya is Radha. Gitagovindam of Jayadeva exemplifies Radha in almost all avastha-s refuting the above mentioned theory. The vast ocean of vaishnava literature gives ample evidence that even a parkiya can undergo all the 8 states.

9.2 Kanishtha nayika : Another important question to be addressed is, can a kanishtha nayika have a svadhinapatika avastha? The fact that svadhinapatika is an avastha is to be noted here.  Rasamanjari defines svadhinapatika as sada sakutajnakara priyatama svadhinapatika [42]. Shringaramanjari refutes this definition saying the word ‘sada’ should be discarded as these eight nayikas are eight different avasthas or stages of a heroine and a word like ‘Sada’ would mean being constant which is against the whole theory of stages[43]. Thus it can be safely deduced that a svadhinapatika is an avastha bheda only and when the hero is with the kanishtha nayika in eager dalliance with her then she will be a svadhinapatika.

9.3 Bhoja’s contribution: Bhoja in his work Shringaraprakasha, gives a unique classification of the heroines being classified into Nayika, Pratinayika, Upanayika and Anunayika. In this classification, the nayikas are classified according to their position in the plot. This is a classification of the position and not the nayika herself.

  1. Conclusion: After a thorough study of the nayika classification, it can be safely concluded that the total number of Shringara nayikas is not 384 as conventionally believed, but is 264 only. Also nayikas in general are 792.

 

Endnotes

[1] Nāṭyaśāstra: Text with Introduction, English Translation and Indices in Four Volumes., trans. Narayanan P Unni (Delhi: Nag Publ., 1998), XXXIV. xxiv. 1064.

[2] Rasamañjarī of Śrī Bhānudatta with the Commentaries Samañjasā by Śrī Viśveśvara and Sukhāvabodhā by Śrī Janārdana Pāṇḍeya, trans. Viśveśvara and Janārdana Pāṇḍeya, Sarasvatibhavana – Grantamala 134 (Varanasi: Sampūrṇānandasaṃskr̥taviśvavidyālaye, 1991), 112.

[3] Rāmacandra and Gunacandra, Nāṭyadarpaṇa, trans. Viśveśvara (Delhi: Hindī Department, Delhi University, 1961), xxlv. 378.

[4] Nāṭyaśāstra, XXV. xli–xlii. 702.

[5] Ibid., XXV. xlv. 703.

[6] Rudraṭa, Kāvyālaṅkāra Aṃśuprabhā’khya-Hindīvyākhyā-Sahita / Hindīvyākhyākāra Satyadeva Caudharī. (Delhi: Hindi Anusandhan Parishad, 1965), XII. xvi. 381.

[7] Rudrata and Ruyyaka, Rudrata’s Shringaratilaka and Ruyyaka’s Sahridayalila, trans. Kapil Deo Pandeya (Varanasi: Prachya Prakashan, 1968), 11.

[8] Pramilā Tripāṭhī, Hemacandrakr̥ta Kāvyānuśāsana Evaṃ Bhojakr̥ta Sarasvatīkaṇṭhābharaṇa Kā Tulanātmaka Adhyayana (Parimala Publication, n.d.), 353.

[9] Rakeshgupta, Studies in Nāyaka-Nāyikā-Bheda (Aligarh: Granthayan, 2003), 392.

[10] Śāradātanaya, Bhāvaprakāśanam, trans. Madan Mohan Agrawal (Sādābāda: Ushā Agravāla, 1978), IV. cxxxv. 132.

[11] Śiṅgabhūpāla, Rasārṇavasudhākaraḥ, ed. Gaṇapatiśāstrī, Anantaśayanasaṃskr̥tagranthāvaliḥ 50 (Trivandrum: Printed by the Govt. Press, 1916), I. xciv. 21.

[12] Viśvanātha, Sāhitya Darpaṇa, trans. Lokamani Dahal and Trilokinatha Dvivedi (Varanasi: Chowkhamba Surabharathi Prakashana, 1995), 175.

[13] Vāgbhaṭa (last), Vāgbhaṭālaṅkāraḥ (Kalkātā: Ramānātha Majumadār Trust, 1917), VI. x. 199.

[14] Rakeshgupta, Studies in Nāyaka-Nāyikā-Bheda, 325.

[15] Dhanañjaya, Daśarūpakam: Samīkṣātmaka Vistr̥ta Saṃskr̥ta Hindī Bhūmikādyāvaśyaka Tattvopetam, trans. Dāhāla, Harjivandas Sanskrit Granthamala 45 (Vārāṇasī, Bhārata: Caukhambā Amarabhāratī Prakāśana, 1987), II. 257.

[16] Śṛṅgāramañjarī, ed. Dr. V. Raghavan (Hyderabad: Hyderabad Archaeological Department, 1951), 25.

[17] Rasamañjarī, 101.

[18] Śṛṅgāramañjarī, 1951, 27.

[19] Kāvyālaṅkāra, XII. xvii. 381.

[20] Śṛṅgārārṇavacandrikā, ed. V.M. Kulkarni (Bharatiya Jnanapitha, 1969), IV. lxi. 31.

[21] Sāhitya Darpaṇa, III. lviii. 176.

[22] Nāṭyaśāstra, XXV. xlii. 702.

[23] Rasamañjarī, 13–14.

[24] Rasārṇavasudhākaraḥ, I. xcviii. 23.

[25] Nāṭyaśāstra, XXV. xliii. 702.

[26] Śṛṅgāra Tilaka, I. lxv. 17.

[27] Akbar Shah, Śṛṅgāramañjarī, ed. Dr. V. Raghavan (Hyderabad: Hyderabad Archaeological Department, 1951), 23.

[28] Śṛṅgārṇava Candrikā, IV. lxxxi. 33.

[29] Rasamañjarī, 57.

[30] Kāvyālaṅkāra, XII. xxiv–xxv. 382–83.

[31] Nāṭyaśāstra, XXV. xliv. 702.

[32] Rasamañjarī, 110.

[33] Pappu Venugopala Rao, Rajamanjari of Bhanudatta (Chennai: Pappus Academic & Cultural Trust, 2011), 53–65.

[34] Kāvyālaṅkāra, XII. xxxix. 385.

[35] Bhojarāja, “Śṛṅgāraprakāśa,” in Bhojarāja Granthamālā, ed. R.S. Saini, vol. 1 (Delhi: Nag Publication, 2001), XV. 649.

[36] Śāradātanaya, Bhāvaprakāśanam, IV. cxxxix. 133.

[37] Sāhitya Darpaṇa, III. lxxxvii. 206.

[38] M.M. Citradhara, The Śṛṅgārasārini, ed. Trilokanatha Jha (Bihar: Trilokanatha Jha with the financial assistance from the Ministry of education, Government of India, 1965), 49.

[39] Daśarūpakam, II. 274.

[40] Ibid., II. 254.

[41] Śṛṅgāra Tilaka, I. clii–cliii. 40.

[42] Rasamañjarī, 163.

[43] Akbar Shah, Śṛṅgāramañjarī, 1951, 15.

 

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